Models of care for sickle cell disease in low-income and lower-middle-income countries: a scoping review

Laura Drown, Miriam Osei, Ada Thapa, Chantelle Boudreaux, Natasha Archer, Gene Bukhman, Alma J Adler

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As part of the Centre for Integration Science’s ongoing efforts to define, systematise, and implement integrated care delivery models for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), this Review explores models of care for sickle cell disease in LICs and LMICs. We identified 99 models from 136 studies, primarily done in tertiary, urban facilities in LMICs. Except for two models of integrated care for concurrent treatment of other conditions, sickle cell disease care was mostly provided in specialised clinics, which are low in number and accessibility. The scarcity of published evidence of models of care for sickle cell disease and integrated care in rural settings of LICs and LMICs shows a need to implement more integrated models to improve access, particularly in rural areas. PEN-Plus, a model of decentralised, integrated care for severe chronic non-communicable diseases, provides an approach to service integration that could fill gaps in access to comprehensive sickle cell disease care in LICs and LMICs.